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Scientific Studies and Study References

Today’s consumer is bombarded with a tremendous amount of information about which ingredients and or products are considered healthy and which are not.  Most of the information that reaches the consumer does so through the media and often this means the consumer receives biased conflicting and misleading information. All of this makes it extremely difficult for the consumer to decide what information is valid.
Below is my dedicated attempt to provide you with a series of scientific studies as well as reference articles which reflect the actual work of the dedicated scientific community who hope to bring you the real facts and data so that you can make wise and healthy choices. 


Part One: Comphensive Facts On Fiber

…along with scientific research in well received, and respected, mostly medical publications...

Proven benefits of an increase in fiber intake include weight loss and the pvention or need for treatment of diseases and conditions such as appendicitis, breast cancer, candida, high cholesterol, colon and colorectal cancer, constipation, coronary heart disease, diabetes, diverticular disease, gallstones, hemorrhoids, hiatus hernia, hypertension and stroke, infection, irritable bowel and/or gastrointestinal tolerance, prostate cancer, ulcers, varicose veins, and others including menstruation problems.


· The greater your fiber consumption, the higher your caloric waste. Fiber blocks the absorption of fat - and hence calories - in the intestines. The water-holding properties of fiber make your gut contents bulkier, and this distention of your stomach and small intestine induces satiety. Another possibility is that fiber changes the pattern of hormone release, thereby pventing low blood sugar, which contributes to hunger signals.

Studies on Fiber Intake and Weight Loss

· International Journal of Obesity, 1990. Dietary fiber has proved beyond all doubt to be of value in the management of overweight, in helping weight loss, and shrinking hunger feelings.

· Journal of Nutrition, 1990. Consumption of soluble fiber results in smaller final body weight. This effect is related to the insulin response of the dietary component.

· Appetite, 1986. Overweight people consume little more than half the fiber
recommended, contributing to failure of weight loss programs.

· British Journal of Nutrition, 1984. Soluble fiber reduces hunger and influences carbohydrate and lipid (fat) metabolism in a beneficial way.

· Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber, 1980. The greater your fiber consumption, the higher your waste of calories. Energy output is increased with the bulking action of dietary fiber.

Summary: "One thing is certain; the higher the percentage of fiber in your diet, the lower the tape measure reading around your waist."


· Appendicitis - Appendectomy patients are at greater than average risk for certain cancers. It may be that the fiber-depleted diet resulting in appendicitis is the same diet that sets the scene for cancer.

· Gastroenterology, 1990. The increase in appendicitis is promoted primarily by an associated fall in dietary fiber intake.

· Cancer Research, 1990. A link between appendicitis and large bowel cancer has been noted, and both are hypothesized to be pvented by a high fiber diet.

   Breast Cancer - The environmental factors, including diet, are now believed to be the most significant cause of breast cancer, including particularly high intake of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids and a poor intake of antioxidants.

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute, April 1991. We found that by doubling the amount of fiber (in the typical Western diet), you can significantly reduce the amount of mammary cancer down to the level of a low-fat diet. It shows that the fiber itself contains substances which, when they get into the bloodstream, will inhibit the formation of a mammary tumor. What seems to be happening is that fiber, by some magical means that we don't understand, is creating changes in the hormone system which protect against breast cancer.

· Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy, 1990. The approach to breast cancer pvention should include an increase in fiber consumption to 25 or 30 grams a day.

· Nutrition and Cancer, 1990. Dietary fiber has the potential for affecting breast cancer risk. Fiber may have a protective role because of its influence on estrogen metabolism and excretion, or because of the effects of good-buy lignans - a family of compounds formed in the intestine from fiber-associated pcursors.
· Cancer Research, 1989. Fiber from grains consumed during early teen-age years results in decreasing the chances of breast cancer in both pmenopausal and post-menopausal women.

· Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 1987. Fiber intake causes the production of substances that protect against breast and prostate cancer.

· Prostate Cancer - Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in American men and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality. Diet is a primary cause of cancer.

· International Journal of Epidemiology, 1988. Population groups with diets high in fiber have a low incidence of cancer, including cancer of the prostate.

· Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 1987. Fiber intake protects against prostate cancer.

· Colon And Colorectal Cancer - Low-fiber diets are associated bowel cancer. Colon cancer is our second most common type of cancer. The rates of colon cancer in various countries are inversely associated with the consumption of fiber; the more fiber, the less colon cancer. Fiber dilutes bacterial activity, thereby reducing the cancer potential. Fiber can act very rapidly to slow down colon cancer, even after initial signs have been diagnosed.

· Southern Medical Journal, 1990. Increasing the intake of dietary fiber greatly decreases mortality associated with colorectal cancer.

· Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 1990. Fiber-containing foods are protective in colorectal cancer

· Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 1990. The levels of harmful colonic bacterial enzymes are inhibited by dietary fibers.

· Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening, 1990. A low-fiber, high-fat diet increases the risk of developing a colonic neoplasm (any new, abnormal, uncontrolled growth).

· Cancer Research, 1990. Fat has no affect on cancer development when the fiber content of the diet is high.

· American Journal of Epidemiology, 1989. Dietary fiber decreases colon cancer risk.

· Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 1990. "The supplement of dietary fiber reduces hunger and increases the frequency of elimination."

·Coronary Heart Disease - This condition, existing when arteries supplying blood to your heart are narrowed by plaques compounded from oxidized cholesterol, calcium, fats and proteins, is our number-one killer.

· American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990. Dietary fiber lowers blood fat and blood pssure.

· American Journal of Cardiology, 1987. Soluble fiber decreases estimated risk for coronary heart disease by greater than 30%.

· High Cholesterol - High fiber diets result in bile acid excretion, reducing the amount returning to your liver. To compensate, your liver produces more primary bile acids using the cholesterol in your blood as part of the necessary new materials, thereby pruning your cholesterol pool. If no additional cholesterol is manufactured, your cholesterol levels decrease.

· Journal of Gerontology, 1991. Intake of fiber is inversely associated with total cholesterol levels in older people. The effect of dietary factors on cholesterol levels is not age-limited.

· Journal of the American Medical Association, 1988. A broad public health approach to lowered cholesterol levels by additional dietary modification, such as with soluble fiber, may be pferred to a medically oriented campaign that focuses on drug therapy.

· Hypertension And Stroke - Persistently high pssure of blood against arterial walls. pcursors are obesity, smoking, hyperactive personality, and stressful environments. Fiber helps to keep your circulatory system unobstructed.

· British Medical Journal, 1979. A group of 17 healthy volunteers was asked to increase fiber intake modestly by making high-fiber substitutions for low-fiber foods. Blood pssure dropped significantly over a four-week period.

· Diabetes - Fiber can reduce insulin requirements, improve glycemic control, lower cholesterol and triglyceride valued, and promote weight loss in diabetics. A high-fiber diet leads to discontinuance of insulin therapy in about 60% of non-insulin-dependent diabetics, and significantly reduces doses in the other 40%. Many types of dietary fiber modulate glucose absorption. Insulin resistance can be caused by a deficiency of biologically active G.T.F. - chromium (glucose-tolerance factor). Chromium is an essential trace mineral which is deficient in more than 95% of Americans.
· British Journal of Nutrition, 1990. Supplementation with soluble fiber improves glucose tolerance.

· American Journal of Nutrition, 1990. Dietary fiber improves glucose metabolism.

·Diverticular Disease - This is the development of small, blown-out, or inflamed pouches in the wall of the colon. Complications may occur with or without an acute attack. The role of high-fiber diets in reducing bowel-wall pssure is primary.

· British Journal of Clinical Practice, 1990. A high-fiber diet is effective in the treatment of diverticular disease.

· Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice, 1988. Diets low in fiber pdispose a patient to the development of diverticulosis, and adding fiber to the diet is effective in pvention and treatment.

· Gallstones - Stone-like masses that form in the gallbladder. The more cholesterol in your bile, the greater the tendency for gallstones to develop. Fiber increases the production of a substance which helps keep bile cholesterol in solution.

· Lipids, 1990. The highest incidence of gallstones is found in animals receiving the lowest fiber diets. Gallstone incidence is reduced by dietary fiber.

· Infection - Invasion and multiplication of "unfriendly" microorganisms, most often in body tissues made susceptible to disease, and lacking adequate resistance to the invasion. Fiber supplementation helps to keep insulin levels stabilized, helping to pvent secondary problems during any infectious period. This facilitates the healing process.

    Candida - Yeast-Like Fungus which causes various infections. Symptoms include headache, fatigue, depssion, irritability, digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, joint pains, skin rashes, menstrual disorders, loss of sex drive, recurrent bladder and vaginal infections, sensitivity to chemical odors and additives.

· Journal of Family Practice, 1989. Even those women, whose environment was conductive to producing candida, were able to be candida-free with adequate fiber intake.

· Varicose Veins - Swollen veins susceptible to swelling and distortion. Inadequate fiber in our diet is an important cause of varicose veins.


Part Two: Research From Scientific Literature

The research found in numerous scientific journals support that the use of fiber increases satiety, thus a weight control product, and that the use of fiber reduces levels of serum cholesterol. In addition, various scientific literature states that there remains a relationship between the use of dietary fiber and a decrease in coronary heart disease, the improvement of glucose homeostasis, a reduction in breast cancer, growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion, a pvention for strokes, and a lowering of blood pssure. In addition, further research encourages the use of fiber to the recommended level of twenty to thirty-five grams per day, and research supports the use of fiber in conformity to moderation and variety.

Research in scientific literature that claims that the use of fiber causes weight loss, appetite control, and reduced levels of serum cholesterol:

The role that fiber plays in the reduction of weight because it can be used as an appetite control. Scientific literature supports these claims. A primary research report directed by Burley et. al (1993) states that the use of a high-fiber food has a clear effect on the control of appetite and its relationship to body weight. Nine males and nine females who had lean, healthy bodies participated in the study. Two different meals were ppared, everything remained similar within the two meals, except the fiber content. The low-fiber meal had three grams of dietary fiber, and the high-fiber meal had eleven grams of fiber.

The researchers did not tell the subjects about the hypothesis that fiber may be a beneficial aid for appetite control. Subjects were to eat the meals with the low-fiber content, and the high-fiber meal. After eating the two different meals, the subjects reported the pleasantness of the food and how full they felt. The subjects had to keep diaries throughout the day.

After four to four and a half hours after to lunch, the people who ate the high-fiber meal had a lower desire to eat than the group which ate the low-fiber meal. There remained an eighteen percent reduction of food intake because of the high-fiber meal. The researchers then concluded that the high-fiber meal (Quorn) can be an aid to increase the later stages of satiety. They also indicated that in pvious studies (Burley& Blundell, 1992) that the intake of thirty grams of fiber supplements per day causes a decrease of appetite

(2). Jorgensen et. al (1996) conducted research with broiler chickens and found the same results. They concluded, through testing their appetite control, that the increase of fiber had a direct relationship with body fat reduction. They believe that the chickens who did not have a high-fiber diet, had an increase in fat retention (3).

In addition, numerous primary research reports stated the important role of fiber in weight loss and its effect to decrease in serum cholesterol levels. One primary research report, Kaul and Nidiry (1993), conducted experiments on nine obese patients (twenty percent or more above the recommended body weight). These patients were given a Meal Exchange for one to eight months. This Meal Exchange consisted of a high-fiber food (14.68 grams) which contained nuts, nonfat milk, whole grains, and lactase. The results confirmed the beneficial role fiber has concerning weight loss and blood cholesterol levels.

The patients, on average, lost seventeen pounds, and their blood cholesterol levels dropped dramatically. In addition, a pvious study in 1987 showed that a regular 1200-calorie diet does not cause the same amount of weight loss as the high-fiber Meal Exchange. In that study the average weight loss on the regular diet was eight pounds, while the average weight loss for the high-fiber meal was twelve pounds. The report concluded that a high-fiber diet benefits the body through weight loss and lower levels of blood cholesterol (4).

Two other primary research reports depict the effects of fiber and its advantageous relationship to body weight and cholesterol. Seim and Holtmeier (1992) tested forty-one people who stayed on a low-fat, high-fiber diet for a period of six weeks. The subjects were given a list of certain foods to buy in grocery stores which were high in fiber, thus low in fat. The average weight loss was ten pounds and the average body mass index decreased five percent. Total cholesterol levels decreased sixteen percent. Thus, the researchers concluded that a low-fat, high- fiber diet aids the body in weight and cholesterol reduction (5). Another primary research report executed by Borne et. al (1996) deduced the same conclusions. Six dogs were on a high-fat, low-fiber diet, and six different dogs were fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet.

The dogs on the low-fat, high-fiber diet had a decrease in body fat and reduced total serum cholesterol concentrations. Thus, the researchers believed that these findings become integral in understanding weight management, in regards to obesity research (6).

Furthermore, two primary research reports solely concern the relationship between dietary fiber and a reduction in cholesterol levels. Hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used and they were fed dietary supplements. This diet also included a reduced intake of dietary fat. As an outcome of the experiment, serum total cholesterol and serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased in the rats. Another primary research report conducted by Donnelly et. al (1996) concluded that a low-fat and high-fiber meal reduces HDL cholesterol. Third and fifth graders were observed four two years in rural Nebraska. There was an intervention and a control group. The intervention group was fed a lower in fat and higher in fiber meal than the control group. After two years of tests, the researchers confirmed that the low-fat, high-fiber diet caused a dramatic reduction in HDL cholesterol levels (7).


Part Three: Research In Scientific Literature That Supports The Claim That Fiber Benefits The Body By Helping The Body To Maintain Good Health

A review research report on dietary fiber and health by Trusell (1993) made a comphensive analysis of the numerous benefits of dietary fiber. They determined that there remain two types of fiber, soluble and insoluble fiber. These two various kinds of fiber perform different functions in the body, especially in blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, transit time, fermentability and levels of constipation (Wolever and Jenkins 1986). The review report determined that insoluble fiber can increase fecal bulk (Williams and Olmsted 1986) and relieve constipation (Muller-Lissner 1988).

Moreover, soluble fiber can become an aid for diabetes helping the upper gastrointestinal tract (Peterson and Mann 1985). Soluble fiber can also help lower plasma cholesterol (Truswell and Beynen 1992). The review also reported that an incomplete intake of dietary fiber can be the result of gallstones (Burkitt and Trowell 1975) and diverticular diseases (Painter and Almeida 1972). The report further stated that the most beneficial aspect of fiber is its effect on the risk of large bowel cancer (Neale 1988). A study conducted by Willett et al. on 88,000 nurses in the United States reported that an increase of fiber lowered the risk of colon cancer (1990). Therefore, there remain numerous advantages concerning of the use of dietary fiber and the maintenance of good health.

The most important information concerning the fact sheets and products advertised on the internet remains the effect fiber supplements have in weight reduction through its effect on satiety levels. Reports from the aforementioned review paper deduced that fiber supplements can be a suitable source of fiber because the fiber supplements can separate the advantages from the disadvantages of the two different types of fiber. In addition, this review paper confirmed that in "double-blind" trials that fiber supplements result in a larger weight loss than the intake of regular dietary fiber (Ryttig and Leeds 1990). Fiber supplements also aid in weight loss because they are naturally low in saturated fat and they dispose fat. In addition, several research studies, including studies conducted by Haber and Heaton 1977, Brand and Holt 1990, and Burlery, Leeds and Blundell 1987, claimed that fiber reduces the appetite or extends satiety.

Ultimately, this review paper supports the claims made on the internet and the claims that the advertisements make. The review paper supported that fiber suppsses appetite, and thus leading to weight reduction. However, it does not state that fiber can be used solely as an aid in weight loss (8).

In primary research reports, fiber has been proven to have other beneficial aspects. Fiber reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, improves glucose homeostasis, reduces risk of breast cancer, causes growth retardation by mineral oil ingestion to become pvented, pvents strokes, and causes the blood pssure to become lowered. Two primary research reports confirm that a diet high in fiber can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Rimm and Ascherio (1996) studied 43, 757 male health professionals and gave them 131 questions in order to measure their dietary fiber intake.

 After six years of follow-up, the researchers found that the professionals who had a ten gram increase of fiber intake had a decreased risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, they concluded that dietary fiber, independent of fat intake, will pvent coronary heart disease (9).
Another primary research report executed similar conclusions. Bagger and Andersen (1996) studied rats who were given an increase of dietary fiber. Cholesterol levels were reduced, and the researchers determined that an increase in fiber can decrease risk signs of coronary heart disease (10). Reimer and McBurney (1996) administered an experiment to test fiber and its role in glucose homeostasis. They tested Sprague-Dawley rats for fourteen days and gave them either a low-fiber or high-fiber diet. They found that the rats with high-fiber diets had modified insulin. In all, they concluded that fiber remains highly beneficial in helping glucose homeostasis (11).

Rohan, Howe, Friedenreich, Jain and Miller in 1993 studied 56,837 women for five years. The dietary intake of women who had breast cancer, and women who had not been diagnosed with breast cancer were compared and contrasted. Women who had a high intake of fiber had a thirty percent reduction in the risk of breast cancer compared to the women who had a low intake of fiber (12).

Through the experimentation on rats, Morita et. al (1993) made another conclusion about the helpful role of dietary fiber. Growth retardation can be caused by mineral oil. However, through experiments they found that growth retardation was counteracted by the intake of dietary fiber (13).

Yamoir and Horie (1994) studied dietary fiber and its relationship in the pvention of strokes. They carried out an intervention study and studied sixty-three healthy senior citizens in a senior citizens' home. The researchers regulated their diet for four weeks and their mortality for strokes was observed for ten years and then compared to the average mortality rate in Japan for ten years. The researchers discovered that the senior citizens' blood pssure was lower, and there remained a decrease in hemorrhagic, ischemic and strokes compared to the average population in Japan (14).


Fiber supplements prove to benefit the body through weight loss, discarding wastes in the body, for the pvention of diseases mentioned above, and for general good health. These primary research reports and review papers virtually support every claim made in the internet, excluding the psychological effects of dietary fiber. The internet research and scientific literature research both confirm the importance of fiber, thus the importance of fiber supplements in promoting good health. Few pcautions exist, one review resolutely advocates the use of fiber, except the report suggests moderation and variety Kritchevsky (1993) (15).

In addition to the safety pcautions mentioned in the internet research above, the primary research and review papers also believe that infants and long-distance athletes must be cautious with their fiber intake (Truswell 1992) (8). Excluding these groups, however, fiber supplements remain an integral aid in improving nutrition. In regard to weight control, fiber supplements help increase satiety and therefore procures weight loss. Fiber supplements can then become an aid to persons with obesity or binge eating disorder.


1. Hunt R., Fedorak R., Frohlich J., McLennan C., Pavilanis A. (1993, April). Therapeutic role of dietary fibre. Canadian Family Physician, 39, 897-900.

2. Burley VJ., Paul AW., Blundell JE. (1993, June). Influence of a high-fibre food (myco- protein) on appetite: effects on satiation (within meals) and satiety (following meals). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 409-418.

3. Jorgensen H., Zhoa XQ., Knudsen KE., Eggum BO. (1996, March). The influence of dietary fibre source and level on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 379-395.

4. Kaul L., Nidiry J. (1993, March). High-fiber diet in the treatment of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Journal of the National Medical Association, 85, 231-232.

5. Seim HC., Holtmeier KB. (1992 December). Effects of a six-week, low-fat diet on serum cholesterol, body weight, and body measurements. Family Practice Research Journal, 12, 411-419.

6. Borne AT., Wolfsheimer KJ., Truett AA., Kiene J., Wojciechowski T., Davenport DJ., Ford RB., West DB. (1996 July). Differential metabolic effects of energy restriction in dogs using diets varying in fat and fiber content. Obesity Research, 4, 337-345.

7. Donnelly JE., Jacobsen DJ., Whatley JE., Hill JO., Swift LL., Chierrington A., Polk B., Tran ZV., Reed G. (1996 May). Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Obesity Research, 4, 229-243. 1

8. Trestle AS. (1993). Dietary fiber and health (Review). World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 72, 148-164.

9. Rim BE., Scherzo A., Giovannucci E., Spiegelman D., Stampfer MJ., Willett WC. (1996 February). Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA, 275, 447-451.

10. Bagger M., Andersen O., Nielsen JB., Ryttig KR. (1996 March). Dietary fibres reduce blood pssure, serum total cholesterol and platelet aggregation in rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 483-493.

11. Reimer RA., McBurney MI. (1996 September). Dietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucogon-like peptide-1 and insulin in rats. Endocrinology, 137, 3948-3956.

12. Rohan TE., Howe GR., Friedenreich CM., Jain M., Miller AB. (1993 January). Dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study. Cancer Causes and Control, 4, 29-37.

13. Morita T., Ebihara K., Kiriyama S. (1993 September). Dietary fiber and fat-derivatives pvent mineral oil toxicity in rats by the same mechanism. Journal of Nutrition, 123, 1575-1585.

14. Yamori Y., Horie R. (1994). Community-based pvention of stroke: nutritional improvement in Japan. Health Reports, 6, 181-188.

15. Kritchevsky D. (1993 August). Dietary guidelines. The rational for intervention. Cancer, 72, 1011-1014.


Part Four: Additional Fiber References

1. Alfieri M. A., Pomerleau J., Grace D. M., Anderson L. Fiber intake of normal weight, moderately obese and severely obese subjects. Obes. Res. 1995;3:541-547 [Abstract]

2. Ali R., Staub J., Leveille G. A., Boyle P.C. Dietary fiber and obesity. Vahouny G. V. Kritchevsky D. eds. Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease 1982 Plenum pss New York, NY.

3. Anderson J. W., Gustafson N. J. Adherence to high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets. Diabetes Educ 1989;15:429-434 [Medline]

4. Astrup A., Vrist E., Quaade F. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation. Int. J. Obes. 1990;14:105-112

5. Barkeling B., Rossner S., Bjorvell H. Efficiency of a high-protein meal (meat) and a high carbohydrate meal (vegetarian) on satiety measured by automated computerized monitoring of subsequent food intake. Int. J. Obes. 1990;14:743-751 [Medline]

6. Blundell J. E., Burley V. J. Satiation, satiety and the action of fibre on food intake. Int. J. Obes. 1987;11:9-25 [Medline]

7. Blundell J. E., Lawton C. L., Cotton J. R., Macdiarmid J. I. Control of human appetite: implications for the intake of dietary fat. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1996;16:285-319 [Medline]

8. Bourden I., Yokoyama W., Davis P., Hudson C., Backus R., Richter D., Knuckles B., Schneeman B. Postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin and cholecystokinin responses in men fed barley pasta enriched with beta-glucan. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;69:55-63

9. Burkitt D. P., Trowell H.C. Refined Carbohydrate Food and Disease 1975:333-345 Academic pss London, UK.

10. Burley V. J., Leeds A. R., Blundell J. E. The effect of high and low-fibre breakfasts on hunger, satiety and food intake in a subsequent meal. Int. J. Obes. 1987;11(suppl. 1):87-93 [Medline]

11. Burley V. J., Paul A. W., Blundell J. E. Influence of a high-fibre food (myco-protein) on appetite: effects on satiation (within meals) and satiety (following meals). Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1993;47:409-418 [Medline]

12. Burton-Freeman B., Davis P., Schneeman B. O. Postprandial satiety: the effect of fat availability in meals. FASEB J 1998;12:A650(abs.)

13. Burton-Freeman B., Gietzen D. W., Schneeman B. O. Meal pattern analysis to investigate the satiating potential of fat, carbohydrate, and protein in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 1997;273:R1916-R1922

14. Burton-Freeman B., Schneeman B. O. Lipid infused into the duodenum of rats at varying rates influences food intake and body weight gain. J. Nutr. 1996;126:2934-2939 [Medline]

15. Cybulski K. A., Lachaussee J., Kissileff H. R. The threshold for satiating effectiveness of psyllium in a nutrient base. Physiol. Behav. 1992;51:89-93 [Medline]

16. Di Lorenzo C., Williams C. M., Hajinal F., Valenzuela J. E. Pectin delays gastric emptying and increases satiety in obese subjects. Gastroenerology 1988;95:1211-1215 [Medline]

17. Drewnowski A. Energy density, palatability, and satiety: implications for weight control. Nutr. Rev. 1998;56:347-353 [Medline]

18. Duncan K. H., Bacon J. A., Weinsier R. L. The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1983;37:763-767 [Abstract]

19. Evans E., Miller D. S. Bulking agents in the treatment of obesity. Nutr. Metab. 1975;18:199-203 [Medline]

20. Foltin R. W., Rolls B. J., Moran T. H., Kelly T. H., McNelis A. L., Fischman M. W. Caloric, but not macronutrient, compensation by humans for required-eating occasions with meals and snack varying in fat and carbohydrate. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992;55:331-342 [Abstract]
21. French S. J., Read N. W. Effect of guar gum on hunger and satiety after meals of differing fat content: relationship with gastric emptying. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994;59:87-91 [Abstract/Free Full Text]

22. Gustafsson K., Asp N. G., Hagander B., Nyman M., Schweizer T. Influence of processing and cooking of carrots in mixed meals on satiety, glucose and hormonal response. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1995;46:7-12

23. Heaton K. W. Food intake and regulation by fiber. Spiller G. A. Kay R. M. eds. Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber 1980:223-238 New York, NY.

24. Heini A. F., Lara-Castro C., Schneider H., Kirk K. A., Considine R. V., Weinsier R. L. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandial satiety and satiety hormones: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss. Int. J. Obes. Metab. Dis. 1998;22:906-909

25. Hill A. J., Blundell J. E. Macronutrients and satiety: the effects of a high protein or high carbohydrate meal on subjective motivation to eat and food pferences. Nutr. Behav. 1986;3:133-144

26. Holt S.H.A., Brand Miller J.C., Petocz P., Farmakalidis E. A satiety index of common foods. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995;49:675-690 [Medline]

27. Hylander B., Rossner S. Effects of dietary fibre intake before meals on weight loss and hunger in a weight reducing club. Acta Med. Scand. 1983;213:217-220 [Medline]

28. Kuczmarski R. J., Flegal K. M., Campbell S. M., Johnson C. L. Increasing pvalence of overweight among US adults. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys 1960 to 1991. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1994;272:205-211 [Abstract]

29. Leathwood P., Pollet P. Effects of slow release carbohydrates in the form of bean flakes on the evolution of hunger and satiety in man. Appetite 1988;10:1-11 [Medline]

30. Mickelson O., Makdani D. D., Cotton R. H., Titcomb S. T., Colmey J. C., Gatty R. Effects of a high fiber diet on weight loss in college-age males. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1979;32:1703-1709 [Free Full Text]

31. Pasman W. J., Saris W. H., Wauters M. A., Westerterp-Plantenga M. S. Effect of one week of fibre supplementation on hunger and satiety ratings and energy intake. Appetite 1997;29:77-87 [Medline]

32. Pilch S. M. Physiological Effects and Health Consequences of Dietary Fiber 1987:149-157 Life Sciences Research Office Bethesda, MD.

33. Pi-Sunyer F. X. Medical hazards of obesity. Ann. Intern. Med. 1993;119:655-660 [Abstract/Free Full Text]

34. Porikos K., Hagamen S. Is fiber satiating? Effects of a high fiber pload on subsequent food intake of normal-weight and obese young men. Appetite 1986;7:153-162 [Medline]

35. Rigaud D., Paycha F., Meulemans A., Merrouche M., Mignon M. Effect of psyllium on gastric emptying, hunger feeling and food intake in normal volunteers: a double blind study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997;52:239-245

36. Rolls B. J. Carbohydrates, fats and satiety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995a;61(suppl. 4):960S-967S [Abstract]

37. Rolls B. J. Effects of food quality, quantity, and variety on intake. Marriott B. M. eds. Not Eating Enough 1995b:203-215 National Academy pss Washington, DC.

38. Rolls B. J., Castellanos V. H., Halford J. C., Kilara A., Panyam D., Pelkman C. L., Smith G. P., Thorwart M. L. Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998;67:1170-1177 [Abstract]

39. Ryttig K. R., Larsen S., Haegh L. Treatment of slightly to moderately overweight persons. A double-blind placebo-controlled investigation with diet and fiber tablets (DumoVital). Dietary Fibre and Obesity 1985:77-84 A.R. Liss New York, NY.

40. Sakata T. A very-low calorie conventional Japanese diet: its implications for pvention of obesity. Obes. Res. 1995;3(suppl. 2):233S-239S [Abstract]

41. Schneeman B. O., Tietyen J. Dietary fiber. Shills M. E. Olson J. A. Shike M. eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease 8th ed. 1994:89-100 Lea and Febiger Philadelphia, PA.

42. Seagle H. M., Davy B. M., Grunwald G., Hill J. O. Energy density of self reported food intake: variation and relationship to other food components. Obes. Res. 1997;5(suppl.):S87

43. Tomlin J. The effect of the gel-forming liquid fibre on feeding behaviour in man. Br. J. Nutr. 1995;74:427-436 [Medline]

44. Vahouny G. V., Satchithanandam S., Chen I., Tepper S. A., Kritchevsky D., Lightfoot F. G., Cassidy M. M. Dietary fiber and intestinal adaptation: effects on lipid absorption and lymphatic transport in the rat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1988;47:201-206[Abstract]

45. Van Itallie T. B. Dietary fiber and obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1978;31(suppl.):S43-S52 [Abstract]

Part Five: Additional Bibliographic References

Alabaster O, Tang Z, Shivapurkar N: Dietary fiber and the chemopventive modulation of colon Carinogenesis. Mutat Res 350(1);185-197, February 19,1996

Achour L. Fourie B. Briet F, Pellier P, Marteau P, Rambud J-C. 1994.  Gastrointestinal effects and energy value of polydextrose in healthy nonobese men. Am J Clin Nutr 59;1362-1368.

Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL. Dietary Intake of Vitamins, Minerals and Fiber of Persons Ages 2 Months and Over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; 1994. Advance data from vital and health statistics: No 258.

Alles MS, Hautvast JG, Nagengast FM, Hartemink R, Van Laere KM, Jansen JB. 1996. Fate of fructo-oligosaccharides in the human intestine. Br J Nutr 76:211-221

American Academy of Pediatrics. 1981. Plant fiber intake in the pediatric diet. Pediatrics 67:572-575

American Academy of Pediatrics. 1993. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber. In: Barness lA, ed. Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics. Pp.100-106.

American Family Physician. Dietary fiber intake in children. April 1996 v5 p.1857(2)

American Heart Association. 1983. AHA committee report.  Diet in the healthy child. Task Force Committee of the Nutrition Committee and the Cardiovascular Disease in the Young Council of the American Heart Association.  Circulation 67:1411A-1414A.

Anderson JW, Gusafson NJ, Bryant CA, Tietyen-Clark J. 1987. Dietary fiber and diabetes: A comphensive review and practical application. J Am Diet Assoc 87:1189-1197

Anderson JW, Smith BM, Geil PB. High-fiber diet for diabetes. Safe and effective treatment. Postgrad Med 1990; 88:157-61,164,167-8.

Anderson JW, Tietyen-Clark. 1986. Dietary fiber: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Am J Gastroenterol 81:907-919

Asp N-G, van Amelsvoort JMM, Hautvast JGAJ, eds. Proceedings of the Concluding Plenary Meeting of EURESTA: Physiological Implication of the Consumption of Resistant Starch in Man. Wageningen, The Netherlands: EURESTA; 1995:1-204.

Bingham SA. Mechanisms and experimental and epidemiological evidence relating dietary fibre (nonstarch polysaccharides) and starch to protection against large bowel cancer. Proc Nutr Soc. 1990;49:153-171.

Bray GA, Gray DS. Obesity. Part II--Treatment. West J Med 1988; 149:555-71.
Clinicians Publishing Group, Different Roles for Dietary Fiber, Antioxidants. Clinician Reviews, March 2000 v10 i3 p.48.
Council on Scientific Affairs. Dietary fiber and health. JAMA 1989; 262:542-6.

Cummings JH. The effect of dietary fiber on fecal weight and composition. In: Spiller GA, ed. CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC pss;1993:263-349.

Evans MA, Shronts EP. Intestinal fuels: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92:1239-1246.

Ferguson EF Jr, McKibben BT. pventing colorectal cancer. South Med J 1990; 83:1295-9.

Frankenfield DC, Beyer PL. Dietary fiber and bowel function in tube-fed patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1991; 91:590-6,599.

Freed, S.H., Joffe, D.J. The Clinical Impact of Fiber Supplementation for the Reduction of Postprandial Blood Glucose and Risk Reduction of Complications from Diabetes.  Diabetes In Control, Issue 15(1); 12-18 2000 Aug

Glore SR, Van Treeck D, et al. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. J Am Diet Assoc, 94: 425, 1994.

Gray, David S., The clinical uses of Dietary Fiber. American Family Physician, Feb 1, 1995 v51 n2 p.419(8)

Harvard Medical Health. Dietary Fiber and Reduced Risk of Diabetes. Harvard Heart Letter, Dec. 1997 v8 n4 p4(1)
Heaton KW. Dietary fibre. BMJ 1990; 300:1479-80.
Hockaday TD. Fibre in the management of diabetes. 1. Natural fibre useful as part of total dietary pscription. BMJ 1990; 300:1334-6.

Howe GR, Benito E, Castelleto R, Cornee J, Esteve J, Gallagher RP, Iscovich JM, Deng-ao J, Kaaks-Kune GA. Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:1887-1896.

Kimm, Sue Y.S. American Academy of Pediatrics.  The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Development and Treatment of Childhood Obesity.  Pediatrics, Nov. 1995 v96 n5 p1010(5)

Krummel, D et al. Medical nutrition therapy for cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors: specific diets for pvention and treatment. In: Kris-Etherton PM and Burns JH ed: Cardiovascular Nutrition. American Dietetic Association. 1998.

Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, et al. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults.JAMA. 1999;282:1539-1546.

Mariett JA. Sites and mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic actions of soluble dietary fiber sources. In: Kritchevsky D, Bonfield C, eds.  Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Plenum pss; 1997:109-121.

Marlett JA, Cheung T-F. Database and quick methods of assessing typical dietary fiber intakes using data for 228 commonly consumed foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:1139-1148.

Marlett JA., Slavin, Joanne L., Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Oct 1997 v97 n10 p.1157(3)

McCarty, Mark F., Waugh, Robert J.L., Ludwig, David S.,  Pereira, Mark A.,  Jacobs Jr., David R. Dietary Fiber and Weight Gain.  The Journal of the American Medical Association. April 12,2000 v283 i14 p1821.

McKeowyn-Eyssen GE, Bright-See E, Bruce WR, Jazmaji V. A randomized trial of a low fat high fibre diet in the recurrence of colorectal polyps. Toronto Polyp pvention Group. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47:525-536.

National Academy of Sciences. Dietary, Functional, and Total Fiber.Dietary Reference intakes for Energy Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients. 2002 v7 p(7:1 – 7:46)

Nuovo J. Use of dietary fiber to lower cholesterol. Amer Fam Physician 1989; 39(4):137-40.
Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990;336:129-133.

Palacio J, Rolandelli R, Settle R, Rombeau JL. Dietary fiber's physiological effects and potential applications to enteral nutrition. In: Rombeau JL, Caldwell MD, eds. Clinical Nutrition: Enteral and Tube Feeding. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1990:556-574.

Physiological Effects and Health Consequences of Dietary Fiber. Bethesda, Md: Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology; 1987.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber. J Am Diet Assoc, 97: 1157, 1997.

Rose DP. Dietary fiber, phytoestrogens, and breast cancer. Nutrition. 1992;8:47-51.

Scheppach WM, Bartram HP. Experimental evidence for and clinical implications of fiber and artificial/enteral nutrition. Nutrition. 1993;9:399-405.

Scheppach W, Muller UG, Boxberger F, Dusel G, Richter F, Bartram HP, Christi SU, Dempfle CE, Kasper H. Histological changes in the colonic mucosa following irrigation with short cram fatty acids. Eur J Gastroenterol and Hepatol. 1997;9:163-168.

Silk DB. Fibre and enteral nutrition. Gut 1989; 30:246-64.
Simone, Charles B., Simone, Nicole L., Simone II, Charles B.  Fiber Consumption Reduces the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Slavin JL. Dietary fiber: classification, chemical analyses, and food sources. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987; 87:1164-1171. 

Smith U. Dietary fibre, diabetes and obesity. Int J Obes 1987; 11(Suppl 1):27-31.
Spiller GA. Beyond dietary fiber. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991; 54:615-7.

Stubbs RJ. Macronutrient effects on appetite. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders. 1995;19(suppl 5):S11-S19.

Tattersall R, Mansell P. Fibre in the management of diabetes. 2. Benefits of fibre itself are uncertain. BMJ 1990; 300:1336-7.

Van Horn, L. Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease. Circulation. 95:2701, 1997.

Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Manson JE, Spiegelman D, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer: An 8-year follow-up. JAMA. 1992;268:2037-2044.

Williams CL, Bollella M, Wynder EL. A new recommendation for dietary fiber intake in childhood. Pediatrics. 1995;96:985-988.

Williams CL. Importance of dietary fiber in childhood. J Am. Diet Assoc. 1995;95:1146-1149.

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA. Effect of dietary fiber and foods on carbohydrate metabolism. In: Spiller GA, ed.  CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC pss; 1993:111-152.

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